Staphylococcus aureus is the most dangerous of all of the many common staphylococcal bacteria. These gram-positivesphere-shaped coccal bacteria see figure How Bacteria Shape Up often cause skin infections but can cause pneumonia, heart valve infections, and bone infections. These bacteria are spread by having direct contact with an infected person, by using a contaminated object, or by inhaling infected droplets dispersed by sneezing or coughing.
Most women experience minor vaginal problems from time to time. These problems can be related to menstrual cycles, sex, infection, birth control methods, aging, medicines, or changes after pregnancy. A change in your normal vaginal discharge may be the first sign of a vaginal problem.
Vulvovaginitis is an inflammation or infection of the vulva and vagina. It has a variety of causes. Other names for this condition are vulvitis and vaginitis.
Staphylococcus sp. More evidence is currently emerging to show that Staphylococcus, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, can colonize the reproductive systems and affect their structure and function. Staphylococcal infection has become one of the most common causes of infertility in both males and females. This chapter focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of staphylococcal infection and infertility.
Bacterial vaginosis BV is a common disorder which happens when the balance of bacterial flora in vagina is disrupted by a shift in concentration of lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria. It has significant sequelae including increased rates of late miscarriage when diagnosed in early pregnancy, premature rupture of the membranes, endometritis, preterm labour and delivery and tubal factor infertility. So it seems to be necessary to evaluate the prevalence of BV among women with primary infertility.
Anaerobic bacterial infections caused by Bacteroides species, fusobacteria, and clostridia respond favorably to metronidazole therapy. Good clinical results in the treatment of vaginosis due to Gardnerella vaginalis have also been reported. Rates of resistance to metronidazole are still generally low; however, several studies have reported decreased susceptibility among Bacteroides species, as well as different mechanisms of resistance.
Antifungal medications for intravaginal use have been available in the United States for more than a decade. Women may be inclined to self-diagnose yeast infections with any vaginal discharge or other vulvovaginal symptoms that they deem abnormal. Potential delay in diagnosis and treatment of a sexually transmitted disease is also a concern.
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